|Metacognition Strategies Application in Teaching and Learning
Fu Xiaolan, Huang Changbing and Huang Jia
Abstract: Learning strategies are the thoughts and actions that individuals use to accomplish a learning goal. Extensive research has identified the learning strategies used by students of a variety of second and foreign languages and a somewhat smaller body of research has documented the effectiveness of helping less successful lan-guage students improve their performance through learning strategy instruction. This article discusses current issues in language learning strategy research that affect teachers and learners of foreign languages. These issues include: identification procedures of learning strategies, terminology and classification of strategies, the effects of learner characteristics on strategy use, the effects of culture and context on strategy use, explicit and integrated strategy instruction, language of instruction, transfer of strategies to new tasks, and models for language learning strategy instruction. These eight issues are explored through a discussion of existing re-search that illumines the issues. Suggestions are presented for future research on issues that have not yet been thoroughly explored.
| Conceptualization of Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Li Xingshan and Pan Yaotian
Abstract：The purpose of this study was to rethink the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge based on our descriptive research findings and to show how this new conceptualization helps us to understand teachers as professionals. This study was a multiple case study grounded in a social constructivist framework. Data were collected from multiple sources and analysed using three approaches: (a) constant comparative method, (b) enumerative approach, and (c) in-depth analysis of explicit PCK. The results indicated that (a) PCK was developed through reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action within given instructional contexts, (b) teacher efficacy emerged as an affective affiliate of PCK, (c) students had an important impact on PCK development, (d) students’ misconceptions played a significant role in shaping PCK, and (e) PCK was idiosyncratic in some aspects of its enactment. Discussion centres on how these five aspects are related to teacher professionalism.